Colon cancers begin as a small mass of non-cancerous cells called Adenomatous polyp and, after a while, the polyps that have formed into cancerous lumps in the colon become transformed.
These may be small and are accompanied by very few symptoms if any. Regular screening can prevent the development and development of colon cancers by early detection of cancer before it becomes cancerous.
Risk factors in colon cancers.
The vast majority of people diagnosed with colorectal cancer are over 50 years old, and colon cancer can occur in young people, but it occurs less frequently.
African Americans have a higher risk of colon cancer than people of other races.
Personal history of colorectal cancer or benign tumors:
If you already have colon cancer or benign tumors, it will have a greater risk of future colon cancer.
Chronic inflammatory diseases of the colon, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, can increase the risk of colon cancer.
The family history of colon cancers.
If you have a parent or a brother with the disease, and if more than one member of the family has colon or rectal cancer, your risk is greater.
Diet low fiber, high fat.
Colon cancer and rectal cancer may be associated with a low fiber diet and high in fat and calories. Research in this area has yielded mixed results. Some studies have found an increased risk of colon cancer in people who eat diets rich in red meat and processed meat.
The lazy lifestyle.
If you are inactive, you are more likely to develop colon cancer, and regular physical activity may reduce the risk of colon cancer.
Obese people have an increased risk of colon cancer and an increased risk of dying from colon cancer compared to people who enjoy normal weight.
People who smoke may have an increased risk of colon cancer.
Heavy use of alcohol may increase the risk of colon cancers.
Radiation therapy for cancer.
Radiation therapy to the abdomen to treat previous cancer may increase the risk of colon cancers.
Treatment of colon cancer.
The type of treatment recommended by the doctor depends largely on the stage of cancer. The three primary treatment options are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation.
Surgery for colon cancer at an early stage.
If your colon cancer is too small, your doctor may intervene with surgery, such as:
Removal of benign tumors through colonoscopy:
If the cancer is small, and at a very early stage, the doctor may be able to remove it through the colonoscopy.
Removal of large polyps may also require taking a small amount of the lining of the colon in a procedure called laparoscopic mucosectomy.
Pancreatic tumors that can not be removed during colonoscopy can be removed using laparoscopic surgery. In this procedure, the surgeon performs the operation through several small incisions in the abdominal wall and inserts the instruments with the attached cameras that display the colon on the video screen. The surgeon may also take samples of the lymph nodes in the area where the cancer is located.
Gastric colon cancer surgery.
If colon cancer has grown to or through the colon, the surgeon may recommend:
During this procedure, the surgeon removes a portion of the colon that contains cancer, along with a margin of natural tissue on both sides of cancer, and the surgeon is often able to reconnect the healthy parts of the colon or rectum.
Surgery to create a way to remove waste outside the body:
When it is not possible to reconnect healthy parts of the colon or rectum, you may need a permanent or temporary colon passage, this involves creating an opening in the abdominal wall of the remaining intestine portion to eliminate body waste in a special sac.
Sometimes the colon passage is only temporary, allowing time with the colon or rectum to heal after surgery, and in some cases, the passage to the colon may be permanent.
Remove lymph node:
The nearby lymph nodes are also removed during colon cancer surgery and cancer tests.
Advanced cancer surgery.
If the cancer is too advanced or your general health is very bad, the surgeon may recommend a process to relieve colon obstruction or other problems in order to improve symptoms. This surgery is not performed to treat cancer, but to relieve signs and symptoms such as bleeding and pain.
In specific cases where cancer spreads to the liver and if your general health is good your doctor may recommend surgery to remove the cancer lesion from the liver. Doctors can use it before or after this type of surgery, and this treatment may improve diagnosis.
Chemotherapy uses drugs to destroy cancer cells. Doctors usually give it after surgery if the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes. In this way, chemotherapy may help reduce the risk of cancer recurrence. Preoperative chemotherapy can be used to reduce cancer before surgery.
Chemotherapy can also be given to relieve the symptoms of colon cancer that has spread to other areas of the body.
In people with rectal cancer, chemotherapy is usually used alongside radiation therapy, and this combination is often used before and after surgery.
Radiation therapy uses powerful sources of energy, such as X-rays, to kill cancer cells that may remain after surgery, to shrink large tumors before surgery so that they can be removed more easily, or to relieve the symptoms of colon cancer and rectal cancer.
This therapy is rarely used in colon cancer at an early stage. But is a routine part of the treatment of rectal cancer, especially if the cancer has been breached through the rectal wall or moved to nearby lymph nodes.
Radiation therapy is usually combined with chemotherapy. It can be used prior to surgery in order to make the operation easier, and can also be used after surgery to reduce the risk that cancer may recur in the rectal area.
Drugs targeting specific defects that allow cancer cells to grow are available to people with advanced colon cancer, including:
Targeted drugs can be given along with chemotherapy or alone. Targeted drugs are usually reserved for people with advanced colon cancer.
Some people are treated with targeted drugs, while others do not respond to treatment. Researchers are working to determine who is most likely to benefit from targeted drugs. Until then, doctors carefully take the limited benefit of targeted drugs against the risk of side effects and the high cost when deciding on the use of these treatments.
No complementary or alternative treatments for colorectal cancer were found.
Alternative treatments may help you deal with the diagnosis of colon cancers. Almost all people with cancer suffer from some distress.
Common signs and symptoms of distress after diagnosis may include sadness, anger, difficulty concentrating, difficulty sleeping and loss of appetite. Alternative therapies may help redirect your thoughts at least temporarily, to give you some relief.
Alternative treatments that may help relieve stress include:
Dance or movement therapy.
Your doctor can refer you to professionals who can help you know and try to use these alternative therapies, and you should tell your doctor if you are suffering from an ordeal.
Adaptation and support.
The cancer diagnosis can be an emotional challenge, and in a timely manner everyone learns to treat it in its own way, and even find what suits you, you can try:
Learn what to expect and learn enough about your cancer to feel comfortable and make treatment decisions.
Ask your doctor to tell you about your type and stage of cancer, as well as treatment options and side effects. The more you know, the more confident you are when it comes to making decisions about your own care. Find information in your local library and on trusted websites.
Keep your relationship with friends and family close. Maintaining strong close relationships will help you deal with cancer. Friends and family can provide the practical support you will need, such as helping care for your home if you are in the hospital. It can act as emotional support when you feel tired of cancer.
Find someone to talk to, find a good listener who is willing to listen to your talk about your hopes. This may be a friend or family member.
Prevention of colon cancers.
People with a risk of colon cancer can be seen in screening starting at the age of 50, but people with an increased risk, such as those with a family history of colon cancer, should be examined sooner.
There are many screening options, each with its own benefits and disadvantages, and talk about your options with your doctor, and together you can decide which tests are right for you.
Making lifestyle changes to reduce colon cancers risk:
You can take steps to reduce the risk of colon cancer by making changes in your daily life:
Eat a variety of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. As fruits, vegetables, and whole grains contain vitamins, minerals, fiber, and antioxidants, which may play a role in preventing cancer, choosing a variety of fruits and vegetables so that you get a range of vitamins and nutrients.
Stop smoking and talk to your doctor about ways to quit smoking that may suit you.
Exercise most days of the week and try to get at least 30 minutes of exercise most days. If you are inactive, start slowly and gradually increase for 30 minutes and also talk to your doctor before starting any exercise program.
Keep Your Weight Healthy and Ideal If you are a healthy weight, you should work to maintain your weight by combining a healthy diet with daily exercise exercises. If you need to lose weight, ask your doctor about healthy ways to achieve your goal and aim to lose weight slowly by Increase the amount of exercise and reduce the number of calories you eat.
Prevention of colon cancers for people with high risk:
Some drugs reduce the risk of benign polyps before cancer or colon cancer. However, there is insufficient evidence to recommend these drugs to people who have an average risk of colon cancer. We can use these options for people with high risk of colon cancers.
For example, some evidence links the risk of lower polyps and colon cancer with regular use of aspirin. But, we do not know clearly what does and length of time needed reducing the risk of colon cancer. Taking aspirin daily has some risks, including gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers. So doctors usually do not recommend this strategy for prevention unless you have an increased risk of colon cancers.