Fitness is the level of physical condition on which the athlete depends on his athletic performance. It is the individual’s ability and physical ability to play his role in this life without stress or fatigue.
Fitness elements associated with motor performance.
Muscle strength: The ability to exert maximum muscle potential.
Speed: The performance of any physical activity in the shortest possible time.
Flexibility: The ability of the individual to perform any activity in the broadest range allowed by the muscle.
Fitness: the ability of the individual to change the direction of his body on the ground or air in the shortest possible time.
Balance: It is the ability to keep the body from falling for as long as possible.
Muscular compatibility: It is the ability of the individual to integrate a group of movements simultaneously.
How to measure fitness associated with health.
Measurement of respiratory cardiac fitness.
Cardiovascular fitness is one of the most important elements of health-related fitness. That because it closely relates to the functional capacity of the respiratory system.
Experts define it as the ability of the respiratory cardiac system to take oxygen from the external air through the respiratory tract and then transported by the heart and blood vessels. Then extracted from the body’s cells, especially the muscles, to provide the energy we need for muscle contraction.
Respiratory cardiorespiratory fitness is measured directly in the laboratory by subjecting the examinee to a gradual physical effort until fatigue, measuring breathing gases, and then determining the maximum oxygen consumption.
We can also estimate it indirectly through field tests, the most important of which is the measurement of the time required for a limited distance. This distance is usually 1 to 3 kilometres depending on the type of test used and the sample to measure its fitness, available capabilities and available time.
Measurement of musculoskeletal fitness.
This fitness consists of muscle strength, muscular endurance and articular flexibility. Laboratory or field tests can be used to measure this type of fitness.
Common field tests to measure muscular strength are the arm pressure test from the slant position or the upward lift by the brain as an indicator of the strength of the arms and thorax.
The force of the grip can also be used as an indicator of muscle strength. The muscular endurance usually measured by the sit-down test. With bending the knees and for a minute as an indicator of the strength of the abdominal muscles and carrying them.
Articulated elasticity tests are used directly and indirectly. One indirect test, the most common and easy, is to test the arms out of sitting position using the flexibility box.
Measurement of body composition.
The body combination is lipid and non-greasy parts. Non-discrete parts include muscles that represent the large proportion of non-lipid, bone, connective and water parts.
We know that the increase in fat in the individual is undesirable, as this increase in fat is associated with many diseases. The human body needs a minimum of about 5% fat in men and about 12% in women.
The ideal proportions of body fat in men in youth are 10 to 18% of body weight and for women from 15 to 23% of body weight.
If the proportion of fat is 25% of body weight in men or 32% of women, the proportion of grease high obesity or obesity. We can measure the lipid ratio by field and laboratory method.
how to measure it?
One of the most common field methods to measure the proportion of grease in the body using the scale thickness of skin folds in certain areas of the body to infer the amount of fat under the skin, which is an indicator of body fat in general.
We can use skin fold measurements as independent criteria for obesity individual. Or to convert these measures to fat ratios using predictive mathematical calculations intended for this purpose.
Measuring the thickness of the skin fold requires good training and experience so that the measurement can be performed with accuracy and consistency. Therefore, in the absence of sufficient experience and training, some resort to the use of an indicator as an indicator of obesity.
Body Mass Index (BMI) is calculated by dividing the body mass by dividing the weight in kilograms per square meter in meters. This indicator is easy to use and requires no tools.
But is not a very accurate indicator of obesity because it is an indicator to suit weight and height only.
Thus, it does not serve as an indicator of obesity for those with a large muscle mass such as bodybuilders or children and young people.
In general, the body mass index is within the appropriate limits of the adult, ranging from 20 to 24.9 kg / m. BMI measures for those under the age of 18 have no agreement. But, they are certainly below adults’ standards. Women, however, account for 15% of the body fat.
Development of respiratory cardiac fitness
For the development of respiratory fitness or periodic respiratory endurance, a regular physical activity must systematically adhere to practice at a specific intensity, for a specified duration and with a specific frequency.
The quality of physical activity
To develop respiratory fitness, physical activity must be aerobic. Aerobic activity is the activity that takes a rhythmic character and is practised moderately without extreme intensity. An individual can continue to exercise for a period of time without being stopped by physical stress.
Aerobic sports called that name because they use oxygen by the cells of the body to burn fuel to produce the energy needed to contract the muscles.
That is, the energy that those muscles use is coming from an air or oxygen source. Not because it is practised outdoors as is common in some people.
Examples of aerobic activities include walking, jogging. Running for high fitness, swimming, rope-weaving, regular and regular cyclists. Participating in games such as football, basketball, handball, squash, tennis and badminton.
The intensity of practice
To develop respiratory fitness, physical activity must be at a specific intensity. This severity is found in adults according to the recent recommendations of the American College of Sports Medicine as follows:
At a severity of 65 to 90% of the maximum heart rate. Beginners and low-caliber fitness can start severely at 55% of the maximum heart beat.
Beginners and low-caliber fitness can start severely equal to 40% of the maximum heart rate reserve. The maximum heart rate reserve is equal to the maximum heartbeat minus the resting heartbeat.
The second method is more accurate than the first method because it takes into account the cardiac rhythms. That varies in individuals depending on fitness and age.
The purpose, as we have already pointed out, is the intensity of exercise. For aerobic physical activity, it is sufficient to achieve cardiovascular benefit.
Duration and frequency of practice.
The regular person should exercise more than 20 minutes of aerobics to improve his physical activity. Twenty minutes represent the minimum duration of practice each time.
Recent recommendations to improve cardiovascular fitness suggest that the person can divide the 20 minutes into two periods. 10 minutes in each. That is obtaining the same benefits as the 20-minute continuous.
The benefits are cumulative. This makes it easier for people who do not have a full hour of the day. For example, to split the exercise into two periods, every 30 minutes. The required frequency is 3-5 days per week.
In order to maintain the health benefits of physical activity, it is necessary to be regular in practice. Failure to perform physical training one day after the acquisition of cardiorespiratory fitness will not affect them greatly.
Reducing the volume of physical training, duration and duration of training, while maintaining intensity. That leads to maintaining cardiovascular fitness after gaining 5 to 15 weeks. Of course, it’s depending on the amount of reduction and the level of cardiovascular fitness before reduction.
When you remove the physiological adjustment, that occurs to the installation of the body as a result of physical activity or training. The cessation of physical activity for two weeks leads to a significant decrease in respiratory fitness.
This decrease in physiological functions increases as the period of discontinuation increases. The cessation of physical activity, for two months or more, leads to the loss of overall physiological adjustment in respiratory cardiac efficiency.