Hypertension : Symptoms, Causes and Diagnosis


Hypertension is one of the most common cardiovascular diseases and dangerous to the body organs. Doctors call him a silent killer because he does not suggest any symptoms. It can infect the patient for years without knowing it.


Blood pressure measurement.

Blood pressure is a measure of the force of the heart pumping blood through the walls of the arteries (blood vessels) in the body, and the blood pressure is measured by a pressure measuring device containing an inflatable arm placed on the hand and a pressure gauge.

The blood pressure reading consists of two numbers:

The first, or upper, measures pressure in the arteries when the heart beats (systolic pressure).

The second, or lower, measures the pressure in the arteries between the heartbeat (diastolic pressure).

Blood pressure measurements fall under four general categories:


Natural pressure.

Normal blood pressure is less than 120/80 mm Hg. However, some doctors recommend 115/75 mm Hg as the best target for maintaining vascular health.



Where systolic pressure is between 120-139 mmHg or diastolic pressure ranges from 80-89 mmHg.


The first stage of high blood pressure.

Where systolic pressure is between 140-159 mm Hg or diastolic pressure ranges from 90-99 mm Hg.


The second stage of high blood pressure.

It is a very high blood pressure, with a systolic pressure of 160 mm Hg or higher, or 100 mm diastolic pressure of mercury or higher.

Hypertension is one of the most important health problems in both developed and developing countries because:

A common disease and sometimes the patient suffers from high-pressure symptoms, as it may take a long time before detection and diagnosis.

Can lead to serious complications that threaten human life as it accelerates the stages of atherosclerosis, which leads to the occurrence of coronary artery injuries, cerebrovascular accidents, renal insufficiency and peripheral vascular disease, and is an important factor that prepares for heart failure.

May turn into malignant hypertension in people with high blood pressure, which is considered an emergency. Symptoms include high-pressure hyperpnea, optic nerve edema, retinal detachment, vision disorder, severe headache, vomiting, cerebral vascular insufficiency, and hibernation.


Types of hypertension.

Primary or primary hypertension is about 85-90% of cases of hypertension and the cause is not known.

Secondary pressure increases and represents about 10-15% of cases of high arterial pressure and in this case a secondary view of the modern known disease.


Causes of high blood pressure.

Chronic kidney disease.

Disorders of the adrenal gland (Tumor or Cushing syndrome).

Pregnancy (pre-eclampsia).

Drugs such as pills, diet pills, some cold medicines, migraine medications.

Narrowed arteries supply blood to kidneys (renal artery stenosis).



Factors Affecting Hypertension.

The amount of water and salt in the body causes its disturbance to high blood pressure.

The condition of the kidneys, nervous system, or blood vessels.

Levels of various body hormones lead to high blood pressure.

Risk factors that increase the risk of high blood pressure are:

Race, African Americans.


Tension or anxiety.

Drink plenty of alcohol (more than one drink a day for women and more than two drinks a day for men).

Eat plenty of salt in your diet.

The family history of high blood pressure.




Symptoms of high pressure.

Usually, does not cause symptoms but some may feel:



Vertigo, dizziness.



All symptoms of high pressure occur at a similar rate in patients with high blood pressure and non-patients alike. So the person should not rely on these symptoms or what he feels to know the level of blood pressure.


Diagnosis of high blood pressure.

The only way to know blood pressure is to measure it with the device prepared for this because most patients with high pressure do not suffer from symptoms of high pressure.

If the repeated pressure is needed, it can be measured by a 24-hour continuous blood pressure measurement device.

If you have any type of high blood pressure, your doctor may recommend routine tests, such as:

Urine test (urine analysis).

Blood tests.

ECG, a test that measures the electrical activity of your heart. Your doctor may also recommend additional tests such as cholesterol testing, to check for more signs of heart disease.


Complications of hypertension.


The vision is distorted and sometimes loss of vision.

Brain haemorrhage and cerebral thrombosis (due to the effect of high blood pressure on the arteries of the nervous system).

Angina pectoris.

Heart disease Myocardial infarction or heart attack.

Heart failure.

Kidney failure.

Infection of metabolic syndrome.

The difficulty of thinking, memory problems, and difficulty learning.

Patients with stress should follow the doctor because some of them have complications without feeling any symptoms of high pressure.

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